Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: an update
PT Madsen, M Wahlbert, J Tougaard, K Lucke, P Tyack:
Abstact on: Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals
April 15, 2013 – Although this abstract is from 2006, it still provides an overview of man made noise generated from construction and operation of offshore wind turbines. We must also consider when reading
this abstract, that under water noise is cumulative and competing with animals’ rights to use sound and sonar to mate and locate food. Pile driving seems to be the noisiest of activities.